Major transformation of the hottest energy transfo

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Major changes in energy transformation: hydrogen energy economy is beginning to dawn

with the rapid growth of demand, people's interest in hydrogen energy is also growing. Obviously, the next major transformation of energy transformation will be based on the hydrogen economy, which converts green electrons into green molecules through electrolysis of water, thereby producing green hydrogen

at present, we can produce 80million tons of hydrogen per year, which is expected to increase by 20million tons by 2020. Further, many studies show that by 2050, the output will increase to about 5 billion tons of plastic products for culture. Nowadays, most of the fuel is consumed near the production site, usually in chemical plants, but in the future, as blue hydrogen becomes a bridge to the future of green hydrogen, the demand will be more extensive

"green" hydrogen energy is the key to success

ironically, for a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas, it was marked as different grades of gray, blue and green; The color of the label depends on the production method. To make hydrogen energy a potential environmental energy, the key is to make the supply chain more environmentally friendly

the current method of producing hydrogen is to use fossil fuels such as methane, natural gas or coal. This kind of hydrogen, called gray hydrogen, accounts for 95% of the current hydrogen production, and it is an emission intensive process. For each kilogram of hydrogen produced, more than 10 kilograms of carbon dioxide need to be emitted. An improvement scheme can be achieved by isolating the carbon dioxide generated in the process, so as to transport blue hydrogen

but green hydrogen is what Siemens is trying to achieve. This is a method of producing hydrogen and oxygen from water by electrolyzers driven by renewable electricity. If water and electricity come from sustainable energy, then hydrogen is classified as pure green hydrogen, which is the focus of Siemens' new energy business. It has seen the transition of hydrogen energy market from gray to blue and then to green, and each process uses different transition technologies to play its role

infrastructure capacity

the key to realizing the economic potential of hydrogen is to establish a supply chain that can produce green hydrogen on a large scale, and the price should be determined by the market. In the past 10 years, this has been the focus of Siemens, which is in the formative stage of applying this technology to large-scale hydrogen industrialization

the core of Siemens proton exchange membrane electrolysis plant is silyzer module. This innovative technology is very suitable for intermittent power generation using wind and solar energy

five years ago, Siemens' 1 MW silyzer entered the market, which is a major milestone. Since then, the company has conducted commercial trials with customers for different applications. Two years ago, the company added a 10 megawatt version of its power portfolio. Last year, Siemens built its first set of equipment with partners Verbund and Voestalpine at a steel plant in Linz, Austria

like all emerging technologies, the initial cost base of prototype and custom manufacturing is very high, but with the maturity of technology and the increase of demand, the cost will continue to decrease. With the growth of production, advanced automation can be introduced into the production process, and at the same time, digitalization, such as digital modularization, is used by the company, which uses standardized modular building blocks to do module development for customers

like the famous Moore's law of integrated electronic circuits, the scale of Siemens technology is also increasing year by year, and the power level will increase 10 times every four years. The company is currently in the bidding stage of the 100 MW project, and is negotiating with partners on the installation of breaking the 1 MW mark. Over time, hydrogen can be used as widely as wind and solar energy, but in terms of maturity (market and Technology), it is 15 to 20 years behind more mature renewable energy technologies. Over time, similar cost reductions are expected in the optoelectronic sector

economic benefits

finally, although all aspects of industry are facing environmental pressure, the cost will still fall. If hydrogen fuel economy wants to become the mainstream, it cannot rely on subsidies, and a sustainable market must be established, and reasonable cost is one of the first issues to be considered

at present, the production price of grey hydrogen on an industrial scale is about 2 euros per kilogram, sometimes lower, depending on local conditions. When hydrogen is used as a transportation fuel, consumers pay 9 euros per kilogram at the gas station (if they can find it), and this price must be reduced by at least one third to make it more attractive

in terms of cost comparison, it is meaningless to compare green hydrogen with traditional fossil fuels, because traditional fossil fuels are the main source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The automobile industry is on the road of decarbonization and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the role of fossil fuels will certainly be smaller and smaller

nowadays, the national climate policy focuses on the emissions of light vehicles. In most member countries of the group of 20 (G-20), fuel economy or efficiency standards are used to regulate the emissions of traditional light vehicles. 18 of the 20 countries have proposed bans on traditional vehicles and/or formulated incentives and targets to accelerate the sales of low-carbon vehicles. This is why when considering the fuel demand of light transportation, the cost and performance of hydrogen fueled vehicles should be compared with battery based electric vehicles

there are more and more electric cars on the market now. For some consumers, it is a great thing to be able to charge the car at home. However, in terms of charging time and mileage, green hydrogen powered vehicles are excellent. For example, a medium-sized car needs less than 1 kg of hydrogen to drive 100 kilometers, while the hydrogenation process takes only 3 to 5 minutes. This speed is particularly attractive for emergency vehicles and taxis because they cannot waste too much time charging

more importantly, in the medium and heavy transportation industry, green hydrogen is the most promising zero emission fuel. Hydrogen has the characteristics of light weight, long mileage and fast charging, which is especially suitable for heavy vehicles and trains

however, compared with the cost per liter, the more relevant calculation method is the total cost of ownership (TCO). In a report entitled "the road to hydrogen Competitiveness: a cost perspective", the hydrogen energy commission estimated that the total cost of each vehicle would be reduced by 45% compared with the current production scale of about 600000 vehicles per year

to meet these price points, green hydrogen must overcome three main challenges: power cost, load factor of electrolytic cell plant, capital and operation cost. These factors depend on a variety of factors, some of which are beyond the control of producers, such as electricity costs, but with renewable energy accounting for a larger proportion of the energy mix, this factor should be solved by suppliers themselves

when it comes to capital costs, like most manufacturing solutions, it depends on the size and commercialization of the electrolyzer plant to reduce procurement costs. As for operating costs, the NC technology of the electrolytic cell plant can be used to optimize the design and improve productivity, while maximizing the life cycle of the chemical plant. In areas with superior conditions, the cost of producing green hydrogen may already be around 3 euros per kilogram

depending on the application, green hydrogen can be purified and compressed to the level required for direct use, storage or distribution. If storage and transportation are required, there are several options. It can be stored in tanks, caves, or natural gas grids in the form of compressed gas or liquid for different applications, provided that the grids meet all technical requirements

in terms of transportation, according to the specific use of customers, the two main modes of hydrogen transportation are road transportation tanker and medium and short distance natural gas pipeline. When considering the large-scale application of hundreds of megawatts or even hundreds of millions of megawatts, it is best to locate the production site near renewable energy power generation facilities, such as offshore and land wind farms with very favorable wind energy resources. This is because the cost of electricity is the main input factor of green hydrogen, accounting for more than 70% of the production cost. Due to the high transportation cost of hydrogen, these places usually need further synthesis process to produce green methanol or ammonia, which is easy to transport - they are commodities of Global trade. This can be regarded as a green hydrogen export business

market penetration

the power sector is usually regarded as the primary goal of using green hydrogen to drive turbines, but since the carbon dioxide emissions of the power sector account for less than 40% of the world, it must also penetrate other sectors. Today, there may be no economically viable business case to use hydrogen as a source of kinetic energy for power production, because there are more applications to reduce carbon dioxide emissions at a lower total cost. However, in pilot applications, or in a large-scale decarbonization world, in order to further decarbonize the power sector, in addition to installing more renewable energy, green hydrogen can achieve long-term, seasonal large-scale power storage

in the period of insufficient renewable energy supply (such as lack of wind energy), the safety of renewable energy supply will be re electrified on hydrogen fuel gas turbines, engines or fuel cells. This case will become attractive in the medium and long term. This is not an option. Hydrogen (used in cars and trucks) can help the transportation sector, industrial sector (such as steel production) and post power sector decarbonize

more than half of the global emissions come from industry, transportation or building environment, so it is necessary to provide solutions to decarbonize these industries. Traditional renewable energy such as wind energy, solar energy and water energy will play their role, but the enterprise does not recycle cobalt from renewable energy and water, which is an important way to reproduce hydrogen from metallurgical coke. Whether it is used directly or combined with chemicals to produce green methanol and green ammonia, it will play an important role. These chemicals can be stored, transported and used in various fields, such as synthetic fuels. The first detailed introduction is 1 down pressure testing machine and constant stress pressure testing machine or fertilizer

people are very concerned about the transportation industry. There are signs that the transportation industry may be one of the first industries to use hydrogen as fuel, especially in buses, trucks and trains. Hydrogen fuel cells have been used in regional trains to replace diesel engines. In China, South Korea and Japan, the number of vehicles and electric trains using hydrogen fuel cells is expected to grow. In these areas, it received the help of research funds, which began to pay more attention to fuel cells rather than traditional batteries. In addition, German original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), which focus on batteries, are also developing cars and trucks using fuel cells

for some time in the past decade, several automobile manufacturers have been studying fuel cells and electric vehicles at the same time, some of which give priority to fuel cells. The cost of developing two revolutionary concepts at the same time may prompt some manufacturers to focus on electric vehicles, but now OEMs have returned to the idea of fuel cells. They seem to be beginning to understand the challenges and limitations of automotive batteries

new developments have also emerged in China. In recent years, electric vehicles have received large-scale support, bringing rapid growth to the industry. The "Ten City thousand card" plan to promote the development of electric vehicles in China is now promoting hydrogen transportation in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu and other cities

looking into the future, green hydrogen will be no better than

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